Can graphic designs and patterns be protected in the abstract by design patents?

What is an article of manufacture?

Can graphic design be protected with design patents regardless of the product? Design patents cover only those designs that may be applied to articles of manufacture [see MPEP 1503]. An “article of manufacture” essentially means a physical end product, or a component thereof, that results from the manufacturing process. There is no such thing as a pattern design patent or a design patent that simply covers a picture in the abstract without regard to a tangible product.

Examples of what would not constitute an article of manufacture include natural articles (e.g., fruits), processes or methods, machines and compositions of matter. Such categories would not be eligible for design patent protection.

Can a patented design be separated or disembodied from the article of manufacture?

No, design patents do not protect pictures, images, graphic designs, patterns or any other 2-dimensional visual imagery in the abstract. A patented design must be tied to an article of manufacture. In fact, the patent examination manual known as the MPEP requires that each design patent application specify the article of manufacture in the title and claim.

For example, a design patent application simply entitled “LEOPARD PATTERN” or “CHEETAH PRINT” would be objected to by the patent examiner since such a title fails to designate a particular article. A more appropriate title would include an article of manufacture such as “CHAIR WITH LEOPARD PATTERN.” But, can a design patent for a chair be enforced against products that are not chairs?

Below is an example from the USPTO showing a design patent where the article of manufacture (i.e., the product itself) is shown in broken lines:

design patent drawing with broken lines

Can a design patent for one article be enforced against a different type of product?

You can see where this is going. IP owners seeking broad coverage of a particular pattern or graphic design in the abstract will not be able to accomplish this objective with a single design patent. Recently, an owner of a design patent for a pattern for a chair unsuccessfully tried to stop a competitor from using an allegedly similar pattern on a basket. Design patents do not protect designs disembodied from the products.

The other takeaway from this case is that you cannot enforce a design patent for a chair against a basket, no matter how closely similar the allegedly infringing pattern may be. Those are two different articles, and the design patent in the lawsuit covered only chairs. Notice how the similarity of the accused design and patented design was not the issue.

How to obtain broad design patent coverage for patterns and artwork

We just said that designs cannot be patented apart from the articles of manufacture. If a particular design must always be tied to a tangible article or component, why not file multiple design patent applications with the same design as applied to different articles of manufacture? Such a strategy can help establish exclusivity in the marketplace by preventing others from copying a particular pattern or artwork onto a variety of articles. The challenge might be budgeting this effort and deciding which articles would be most popular for a particular design.

Filing both design patent and copyright applications

One comprehensive IP strategy may be to file both design patent applications and copyright applications concurrently. While copyright protection may be granted to two-dimensional visual artwork, keep in mind that copyright registration carries its own set of requirements that differ from those of design patents.

Need help with your design patent application?

Email design patent attorney Vic Lin or call (949) 223-9623 to see how we can assist in protecting your graphic designs.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Thank you for rating my post!

We want to do better.

Could you tell us what was missing in our post?

( Got hesitations? )
Not sure about working with us? Answer 3 quick questions below to find out if we're a good fit.

1) Please check all concerns causing you to hesitate to work with us:*

1) Please check all concerns causing you to hesitate to work with us:*

2) Share a competitive cost quote (specify the IP filing) or your specific concerns about working with us:*

2) Share a competitive cost quote (specify the IP filing) or your specific concerns about working with us:*

3) Email*

3) Email*

Not sure where to start? Start here to protect your IP.

Copyright © Vic Lin 2023